From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Psychology is a collection of academic, clinical and industrial disciplines concerned with the explanation and prediction of behavior, thinking, emotions, motivations, relationships, potentials and pathologies. It might be said that many related disciplines live under the same name including: experimental psychology, which focuses on basic and applied science; humanistic psychology, which uses qualitative research rather than conventional statistical methods to investigate the subjective experience of human beings; clinical psychology and counselling psychology, which focus primarily on helping people overcome or better manage pathologies as well as transcend perceived limitations; and Industrial/Organizational Psychology, which applies psychological principles to people working in organizations.
Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. Educational psychologists also advise on the needs of individual children in the school environment.
Educational psychology focuses on the needs of children in the school environment, as well as how school experiences impact other areas of children's lives. School psychologists conduct evaluations of children to determine eligibility for special services and to identify children with problems such as learning disabilities, ADHD, emotion or mood disorders, and many other childhood psychological problems, especially as they relate to educational needs.
School psychologists are trained at either the masters or doctoral (PhD or EdD) level. In addition to conducting assessments, provide services such as counseling, teacher consultation, and crisis intervention.
Major theorists of educational psychology:
Another reading and point of view on EPEducational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology is concerned with how students learn and develop, often focusing on subgroups such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified in the US and Canada as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. This distinction is however not made in the UK, where the generic term for practitioners is "educational psychologist."
Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks
Cognition can be defined as "the act or process of knowing in the broadest sense; specifically, an intellectual process by which knowledge is gained from perception or ideas" (Webster's Dictionary). Cognition is central to the development of psychology as a scientific discipline. The establishment of Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory in 1879 to study human thought processes is often used as the beginning of modern psychology. Cognitive psychology is one of the major approaches within psychology and can be contrasted with the behavioral view (a focus on observable behavior), a psychoanalytic view (a focus on the unconscious), and a humanistic view (a focus on personal growth and interpersonal relationships.)
There are a variety of perspectives and emphases within cognitive psychology that are currently impacting educators' thinking about how to improve the teaching/learning process. The Information Processing approach focuses on the study of the structure and function of mental processing within specific contexts, environments, or ecologies . Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues developed the Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain as a way to classify the variety of educational objectives related to what and how we know. Researchers in the area of intelligence study how human beings learn from experience, reason well, remember important information, and adapt to the environment. Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development describes the process and stages by which human beings develop the capacity to engage in abstract symbolic thought, one of the distinguishing features of human activity. Piaget's theory is often contrasted with the views of Jerome Bruner and Lev Vygotsky.
Several different areas of inquiry provide an opportunity to test out these different theories. For example, in the area of critical thinking researchers study how we apply our cognitive processes to evaluating arguments (propositions) and making decisions. On the other hand, in the area of creative thinking researchers study how we generate ideas and alternatives that don't fit the "norm." These two areas are often contrasted as the difference between convergent thinking (thinking pattern that we use when we want to narrow down and evaluate ideas) and divergent thinking (thinking pattern we use when we want to expand or develop new ideas). A similar comparison is between left-brain and right-brain orientations in the literature on brain lateralization dominance.
Metacognition is another area in cognition that draws from a number of different perspectives and is the study of how we develop knowledge about one's own cognitive system. The area of study methods, such as SQ4R, provides information about how we can be most effective and efficient during the process of learning.
The materials available in this section will provide a brief overview of these different approaches to the study of cognition.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Cognitive psychology is the psychological science which studies cognition, the mental processes that are hypothesised to underlie behaviour. This covers a broad range of research domains, examining questions about the workings of memory, attention, perception, knowledge representation, reasoning, creativity and problem solving.
Cognitive psychology is radically different from previous psychological approaches in two keys ways.
The school of thought arising from this approach is known as cognitivism.
Cognitive psychology is one of the more recent additions to psychological research, having only developed as a separate area within the discipline since the late 1950s and early 1960s (though there are examples of cognitive thinking from earlier researchers). The term came into use with the publication of the book Cognitive psychology by Ulrich Neisser in 1968. However the cognitive approach was brought to prominence by Donald Broadbent's book Perception and Communication in 1958. Since that time, the dominant paradigm in the area has been the information processing model of cognition that Broadbent put forward. This is a way of thinking and reasoning about mental processes, envisaging them like software running on the computer that is the brain. Theories commonly refer to forms of input, representation, computation or processing, and outputs.
This way of conceiving mental processes has pervaded psychology more generally over the past few decades, and it is not uncommon to find cognitive theories within social psychology, personality, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology; the application of cognitive theories in comparative psychology has led to many recent studies in animal cognition.
? Attention and Filter theories (the ability to focus mental effort on specific stimuli while excluding other stimuli from consideration)
? Pattern recognition (the ability to correctly interpret ambiguous sensory information)
? Concept formation
? Judgment and decision making
Metacognition includes the ability to ask and answer the following types of questions:
Some examples of teacher strategies:
Teaching Thinking Skills
The Role of Metacognition in Second Language Teaching and Learning
Theories and Models of Learning for Educational Research and Practice. This knowledge base features learning theories that address how people learn. A resource useful for scholars of various fields such as educational psychology, instructional design, and human-computer interaction. Below is the index of learning theories, grouped in somewhat arbitrary categories. Note that this website is an iterative project and these entries are a work in progress; please leave comments with suggestions, corrections, and additional references.
We need writers! Please contribute new entries or revisions to this knowledge base. Email your contribution to: info [at] learning-theories.com.
Constructivist, Social, and Situational Theories:
Motivational and Humanist Theories:
Design Theories and Models (Prescriptive):
Descriptive and Meta Theories:
Miscellaneous Learning Theories and Models:
This section examines 12 different theories on how people learn:
Check this :
4MAT system of instruction
Measurement & evaluation
Mdl of school learning (Carroll)
Mdl of teaching/learning (Huitt)
Mdl of eff. classrooms (Slavin)
Problem solving/decision making
Study methods (SQ4R)
Why study ed psychology?
Beginning in 1948, a group of educators undertook the task of classifying education goals and objectives. The intent was to develop a classification system for three domains: the cognitive, the affective, and the psychomotor. Work on the cognitive domain was completed in 1956 and is commonly referred to as Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain (Bloom et al., 1956). Others have developed taxonomies for the affective and psychomotor domains.
The major idea of the taxonomy is that what educators want students to know (encompassed in statements of educational objectives) can be arranged in a hierarchy from less to more complex. The levels are understood to be successive, so that one level must be mastered before the next level can be reached.
The original levels by Bloom et al. (1956) were ordered as follows: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The taxonomy is presented below with sample verbs and a sample behavior statement for each level.
Student recalls or
The student will define
The student will explain
Student selects, trans-
The student will
The student will
The student will
The student will
Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) revised Bloom's taxonomy to fit the more outcome-focused modern education objectives, including switching the names of the levels from nouns to active verbs, and reversing the order of the highest two levels. The lowest-order level (Knowledge) became Remembering, in which the student is asked to recall or remember information. Comprehension, became Understanding, in which the student would explain or describe concepts. Application became Applying, or using the information in some new way, such as choosing, writing, or interpreting. Analysis was revised to become Analyzing, requiring the student to differentiate between different components or relationships, demonstrating the ability to compare and contrast. These four levels remain the same as Bloom et al.’s (1956) original well-known and accepted hierarchy.
In general, research over the last 40 years has confirmed the taxonomy as a hierarchy with the exception of the last two levels. It is uncertain at this time whether synthesis and evaluation should be reversed (i.e., evaluation is less difficult to accomplish than synthesis) or whether synthesis and evaluation are at the same level of difficulty but use different cognitive processes. The two highest, most complex levels of Synthesis and Evaluation were reversed in the revised model, and were renamed Evaluating and Creating by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001). As they did not provide empirical evidence for this reversal, it is my belief that these two highest levels are essentially equal in level of complexity. Both depend on analysis as a foundational process. However, synthesis or creating requires rearranging the parts in a new, original way whereas evaluation or evaluating requires a comparison to a standard with a judgment as to good, better or best. This is similar to the distinction between creative thinking and critical thinking. Both are valuable while neither is superior. In fact, when either is omitted during the problem solving process, effectiveness declines (Huitt, 1992).
In any case it is clear that students can "know" about a topic or subject at different levels. While most teacher-made tests still test at the lower levels of the taxonomy, research has shown that students remember more when they have learned to handle the topic at the higher levels of the taxonomy (Garavalia, Hummel, Wiley, & Huitt, 1999). This is because more elaboration is required, a principle of learning based on finding from the information processing approach to learning.
Behaviourism is an approach to psychology, based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. Interest in the new field arose from a popular claim ?that the observation of behavior is the best or even the only means people have for investigating psychological and mental processes. Some behaviorists have claimed that behavior is the one appropriate subject of psychology?that common psychological terms (belief, goals, etc.) have no referents and/or only refer to behavior, and those taking this point of view sometimes refer to their field of study as behavior analysis or behavioral science rather than psychology. Other behaviorists have argued that studying behavior is a necessary means for understanding mental function.
Table of contents
Leading developers of behaviorism (in rough chronological order):
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Developmental Psychology is the scientific study of change across the life span. This field examines change in a broad range of topics including: motor skills, problem solving abilities, conceptual understanding, acquisition of language, moral understanding, and identity formation.
Questions addressed by developmental psychologists include the following. Are children qualitatively different from adults or do they simply lack the experience that adults draw upon? Does development occur through the gradual accumulation of knowledge or through shifts from one stage of thinking to another? Are children born with innate knowledge or do they figure things out through experience? Is development driven by the social context or by something inside each child?
Developmental Psychology informs several applied fields, including: Education, School Psychology, Child Psychopathology, and Developmental Forensics. Developmental Psychology complements several other basic research fields in Psychology including Social Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, and Comparative Psychology.